Sports injuries occur when playing sports or while exercising. Sports injuries can result from accidents, inadequate training, improper use of protective devices, or insufficient stretching or warm-up exercises. The most common sports injuries are sprains, strains, fractures, and dislocations.
The most common treatment recommended for an injury is rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE).
- Rest: Avoid activities that may cause injury.
- Ice: Ice packs can be applied to the injured area which will help to diminish swelling and pain. Ice should be applied over a towel to the affected area for 15-20 minutes, four times a day for several days. Never place ice directly over the skin.
- Compression: Compression of the injured area helps to reduce swelling. Elastic wraps, air casts, and splints can accomplish this.
- Elevation: Elevate the injured part above heart level to reduce swelling and pain.
Some of the measures to prevent sports related injuries include:
- Follow an exercise program to strengthen the muscles
- Gradually increase your exercise level and avoid overdoing the exercise
- Ensure that you wear properly-fitted protective gear such as elbow guards, eye gear, facemasks, mouth guards, pads, comfortable clothes, and athletic shoes before playing any sports activity.
- Make sure that you do warm up and cool down exercises before and after sports activities. These exercises will help to stretch muscles, increase flexibility, and reduce soft tissue injuries.
- Avoid exercising immediately after eating a large meal
- Maintain a healthy diet which will nourish your body.
- Avoid playing when you are injured or tired.
- Learn all the rules of the sports you play.
- Ensure that you are physically fit to play the sport
Some common sports injuries include:
Foot and ankle injuries
Foot and ankle injuries include the injuries in the leg below the knee, and they are common in athletes and while playing sports such as football, hockey and skating. Common sports injuries to the foot and ankle include sprains and strains, ankle fractures, and Achilles tendinitis. Treatment for these conditions may include orthotics, braces, physical therapy, injections or surgery.
Severe pain in your shoulders while playing your favorite sport, such as tennis, basketball and gymnastics, may be caused by a torn ligament or dislocation of the shoulder bone. These may result from overuse of your shoulder while playing sports. Simple pain or acute injuries may be treated with conservative treatment, while chronic injuries may require surgical treatment.
Fractures of the femur bone, labral tear and hip dislocation are some of the common sports injuries affecting the hip. The hip joint bears more weight and is more susceptible for injuries while playing sports. Hip injuries require immediate medical intervention to avoid further complications. Rehabilitation programs and physical therapy is often recommended following medical intervention, where you need to perform certain exercises to strengthen your muscles and improve movements.
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is major stabilizing ligament in the knee, which may tear with over use while playing sports. The ACL has poor ability to heal and may cause instability. Other common sports injuries in the knee include cartilage damage and meniscal tear. Knee injuries during sports may require surgical intervention, which can be performed using open surgical or a minimally invasive technique. Your surgeon will recommend physical therapy to strengthen your muscles, and improve elasticity and movement of the bones and joints.
Sports Medicine Topics
Click on the topics below to find out more from the Orthopaedic connection website of American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.